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What is IoT and How It Works

Internet of things (IoT) refers to the use of intelligently connected devices and systems to leverage data gathered by embedded sensors and actuators in machines and other physical objects. the scope of the Internet of Things includes connected security systems, thermostats, cars, electronic appliances, lights in a household and commercial environments, alarm clocks, speaker systems, vending machines and more.

How IoT Works

IoT consists of all the web-enabled devices that collect, send and act on data they acquire from their surrounding environments using embedded sensors, processors and communication hardware. humans can interact with the gadgets to set them up, give them instructions or access the data, but the devices do most of the work on their own without human intervention. Their existence has been made possible by all the tiny mobile components that are available these days, as well as the always-online nature of our home and business networks. Connected devices also generate massive amounts of Internet traffic, including loads of data that can be used to make the devices useful, but can also be mined for other purposes. All this new data and the Internet-accessible nature of the devices raises both privacy and security concerns. an IoT system integrates four distinct components will be explained here.

Sensors devices that are frequently used to detect and respond to electrical or optical signals that help in collecting very minute data from the surrounding environment. multiple sensors can be bundled together or sensors can be part of a device that does more than just sense things. 

Connectivity sensors can be connected to the cloud through a variety of methods including cellular, satellite, WiFi, Bluetooth, low-power wide-area networks, or connecting directly to the internet via ethernet. Every option we choose has some specifications and trade-offs between power consumption, range, and bandwidth.

Data Processing manipulation of items of data to produce meaningful information. Once the data is collected and it gets to the cloud, the software performs processing on the acquired data. it could be simple like check the temperature reading is within an acceptable range. or could be complicated like use computer vision on video to identify objects.

User Interface is the space where interactions between humans and machines occur. a user sometimes might also have an interface through which they can actively check in on their IOT system. some actions are performed automatically. Rather than waiting for you to adjust the temperature, the system could do it automatically via predefined rules.