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Types of Information Technology Systems

Basically, any organization need to numbers of information systems supports to support it. in short, this technology refers to information and the complementary networks of hardware and software that people and organizations use to collect, filter, process, create and also distribute data.

1- Operations support system
transaction Processing System are operational-level systems, which provide the key data required to support the management of operations. This data is usually obtained through the automated or semi-automated tracking of low-level activities and basic transactions.

The purpose of the operation support system is to facilitate the business transaction, control production, support internal as well as external communication and update organization central database. The operation support system is further divided into a transaction-processing system, processing control system and enterprise collaboration system.

2- Management Information System (MIS)
this type of Information Technology is a management-level system that is used by middle managers to help ensure the smooth running of the organization in the short to medium term. The highly structured information provided by these systems allows managers to evaluate an organization’s performance by comparing current with previous outputs.

The MIS system analyzes the input with routine algorithms i.e. aggregate, compare and summarizes the results to produced reports that tactical managers use to monitor, control and predict future performance.

Examples of management information systems include:

  • Sales management systems: they get input from the point of sale system
  • Budgeting systems: they give an overview of how much money is spent within the organization for the short and long terms.
  • Human resource management system: overall welfare of the employees, staff turnover, etc.

3- Process Control System
In this type of system, critical information is fed to the system on a real-time basis thereby enabling process control.

4- Decision Support System (DSS)
Decision support systems is a one of Information Technology that are used by senior management to make non-routine decisions. Decision support systems use input from internal systems (transaction processing systems and management information systems) and external systems.

A Decision Support System can be seen as a knowledge-based system, which facilitates the creation of knowledge and allows its integration into the organization. These systems are often used to analyze existing structured information and allow managers to project the potential effects of their decisions into the future. Such systems are usually interactive and are used to solve ill-structured problems. They offer access to databases, analytical tools, allow “what if” simulations, and may support the exchange of information within the organization.

5- Executive Information Systems
are strategic-level information Technology systems that help executives and senior managers analyze the environment in which the organization operates, to identify long-term trends, and to plan appropriate courses of action.

The information in such systems is often weakly structured and comes from both internal and external sources. Executive Information System is designed to be operated directly by executives without the need for intermediaries and easily tailored to the preferences of the individual using them.