Operating System is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. It manages the computer’s memory and processes, as well as all of its software and hardware. It also allows you to communicate with the computer without knowing how to speak the computer’s language.
Examples of Computer Operating System
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. The history of Windows dates back to 1981. windows developed its system as follow.
- Windows 3.x.
- Windows 9x.
- Windows NT.
- Windows XP.
- Windows Vista.
- Windows 7.
- Windows 8 and 8.1.
- Windows 10.
Linux open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel. Linux is packaged in a form known as a Linux distribution for both desktop and server use. Linux was originally developed for personal computers based on the Intel x86 architecture but has since been ported to more platforms than any other operating system. Besides the Linux distributions designed for general-purpose use on desktops and servers, distributions may be specialized for different purposes including computer architecture support, embedded systems, stability, security, localization to a specific region or language, targeting of specific user groups, support for real-time applications, or commitment to a given desktop environment. Furthermore, some distributions deliberately include only free software. As of 2015, over four hundred Linux distributions are actively developed, with about a dozen distributions being most popular for general-purpose use.
Macintosh(MAC) is a family of personal computers designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple since January 1984. The original Macintosh was the first mass-market personal computer that featured a graphical user interface, built-in screen, and mouse. Early Macintosh models were expensive, hindering its competitiveness in a market already dominated by the Commodore for consumers, the IBM personal computer and its accompanying clone market for businesses. Macintosh systems still found success in education and desktop publishing and kept Apple as the second-largest PC manufacturer for the next decade. In the early 1990s, Apple introduced models such as the Macintosh LC and Color classic which were price-competitive with Wintel machines at the time. However, the introduction of Windows 3.1 and Intel’s Pentium processor which beat the Motorola 68040 in most benchmarks gradually took market share from Apple, and by the end of 1994 Apple was relegated to third place as Compaq became the top PC manufacturer. Even after the transition to the superior PowerPC-based Power Macintosh line in the mid-1990s, the falling prices of commodity PC components, poor inventory management with the Macintosh Performa, and the release of Windows 95 saw the Macintosh user base decline.
There are a classification of operating systems
- Character user interface (CUI)-based operating systems.
- Graphical user interface (GUI)-based operating systems.
- Single-user operating systems.
- Multi-user operating systems.
- Single-tasking operating systems.
- Multitasking operating systems.
- Real-time operating systems.