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4 Stages of IoT Architecture

Nowadays, the internet became used in every activity of our life that cause to appear the concept of the Internet of things(IoT) which is a network of devices that allows these things to connect, interact and exchange data. As follow we will explain IoT architecture.

Stages of IoT Architecture

IoT architecture contains 4 stages that are connected to each other to produce what they connected to do. In the next steps we will discuss the 4 stages:


It is the first stage of IoT architecture that includes wireless sensors, software, actuators, and computer devices that are connected together. Examples of IoT devices:

  • Bitdefender BOX. 
  • Google Home. 
  • Amazon Echo.
  • Nest Cam. 
  • Mr. Coffee.
  • SmartMat. 
  • Philips Hue. 
  • TrackR bravo. 


It is the second stage of architecture that is considered software or physical device that can provide additional security for the IoT network and the data it transports. Examples of IoT gateways:

  • Eurotech gateways.
  • Adlink IoT gateways.
  • Dell edge IoT gateways.
  • HPE edge line.

Data system

It is the third stage that divided into the  

Data Center which is a facility that centralizes an organization’s IT operations and equipment. its types are:

  • Corporate data centers
  • Web hosting data centers, providing computer infrastructure as a service (IaaS)
  • Data centers that provide TurnKey Solutions
  • Data centers that use the technology to Web 2.0.

Cloud that is a type of Internet-based computing including servers, storage, and applications. its types are:

  • Altocumulus.
  • Altostratus.
  • Cirrocumulus.
  • Cirrostratus.
  • Cirrus.
  • Cumulonimbus.
  • Cumulus.
  • Nimbostratus.


That is responsible for connecting gateways, data system, and devices each other. it has many types such as:

Device to device (D2D)  Connection between to devices. For example, industrial robots and sensors are connected to one another directly to coordinate their actions. This type of connection is not very common yet, because most devices are not able to handle such processes.

Device to gateway Connections between one device and the gateway. it is telecommunications between sensors and gateway nodes. Gateways are more powerful computing devices than sensors. There are various IoT gateway protocols that may better suit this or that solution depending on the gateway computing capabilities, network capacity and reliability, the frequency of data generation and its quality.  

Gateway to data systems Connection between the gateway node and data system (cloud or data center) to determine what protocol to use, you should analyze data traffic.

Between data systems Connection between different data systems types (cloud and data center) to transfer information within data centers or clouds. 

Types of IoT Networks

There are many types of IoT Networks that are divided into categories based on the distance range they provide such as :

  • A nanonetwork.
  • NFC (Near-Field Communication).
  • BAN (Body Area Network).
  • PAN (Personal Area Network).
  • LAN (Local Area Network).
  • CAN (Campus/Corporate Area Network).
  • MAN (Metropolitan Area Network).
  • WAN (Wide Area Network).
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